Montenegro (Crna Gora, meaning “Black Mountain”) is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered byCroatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo[a] the east and Albania to the southeast. Its capital and largest city isPodgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Prijestonica, meaning the former Royal Capital City.
The history of Montenegro dates back to 9th century with the emergence of Duklja, a vassal state of the Byzantine Empire. In those formative years, Duklja was ruled by theHouse of Vojislavljević. In 1042, at the end of his 25-year rule, King Vojislav won a decisive battle near Bar against Byzantium, and Duklja became independent. Duklja’s power and prosperity reached their zenith under King Vojislav’s son, King Mihailo (1046–81), and his son King Bodin (1081–1101). From the 11th century, it started to be referred to as Zeta. It ended with its incorporation into Raška, and beginning with the Balsic dynasty, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora or by the Venetian term monte negro. Asovereign principality since the Late Middle Ages, Montenegro saw its independence from the Ottoman Empire formally recognized in 1878. From 1918, it was a part of various incarnations of Yugoslavia. On the basis of a referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
Herceg Novi is a major Montenegrin tourist destination. It is well known as a spa and health center; nearby Igalo has an abundance of healing sea mud called “igaljsko blato” (Igalo mud) and mineral water springs called “igaljske slatine” (Igalo water springs). The most famous tourist attractions in Herceg Novi are castle Forte Mare built by the Bosnian king Tvrtko I in 1382, a clock tower built by Austrians in 19th century, the Kanli tower built by Turks, and the Serbian church St. Michael Archangel in central Belavista Square.
Kotor is a coastal town in Montenegro. It is located in a most secluded part of Gulf of Kotor. The old Mediterranean port of Kotor is surrounded by an impressive city wall built by the Republic of Venice and the Venetian influence remains dominant among the architectural influences. The Bay of Kotor (Boka Kotorska), one of the most indented parts of the Adriatic Sea, is sometimes called the southern-most fjord in Europe (though it is actually a submerged river canyon). With the nearly overhanging limestone cliffs of Orjen and Lovćen one of the great Mediterranean landscapes is created. In recent years, Kotor has seen a steady increase in tourists, attracted by both the natural beauty of the Gulf of Kotor and the old town of Kotor itself.
Tivat is set to become a nautical tourism centre of southern Adriatic. The inlets near Prevlaka, as well as the localities of Župa and Kalimanj, provide great conditions for the construction of marinas and yachting clubs. Canadian businessman Peter Munk has bought a naval shipyard in Tivat, and intends to transform it in luxury vacation resort and a marina for luxury yachts. In Tivat hinterlands, adjacent to Tivat Airport, golf courses have been planned, further shaping Tivats prospects as a luxury resort. Beginning from 1971 the Tivat Airport acquired the modern runway and it is now a significant airport for foreign air traffic. It served 573,914 passengers in 2007.
Budva’s most famous beach is Mogren. Nestled in-between several large cliffs it can be reached by a 500 m pathway from Budva’s Old town. Other beaches within official city boundaries include Ričardova glava Pizana, Slovenska plaža. Many other beaches are located just outside of Budva in smaller adjacent towns and villages such as Bečići, Jaz, Trsteno, Maestral, Miločer, Sveti Stefan, Pržno, Kamenovo, Ploče, Crvena Glavica, Drobni Pijesak, Kraljičina plaža, Kraljeva plaža.
In the close vicinity of Budva there are exclusive resorts such as town-hotel Sveti Stefan and Miločer, places frequented by various celebrities as well as local businessmen and politicians.
Petrovac was famous as a popular destination for wealthy tourists from (the former) Yugoslavia. Petrovac is today a popular summer beach resort, its visitors coming predominantly from Montenegro and Serbia. Tourist accommodation has expanded greatly in recent years, although less obtrusively than at Budva and the quality has also improved in response to market demand. The resort’s main attraction is its beach. There is a night club in the old castello. There is ready access to neighbouring beaches at Lucice and Buljarica.
Besides being Montenegro’s main seaport, Bar and its surroundings are also a major tourist destination. Today’s Bar is a modern city, built almost entirely after World War II, with modern buildings, wide boulevards and lots of parking space. Although there are some nice cobble beaches in Bar itself, many tourists choose destinations in other small towns in Bar municipality, notably Sutomore, with its beautiful long sandy beach.
The Ulcinj “south coast” region of Montenegro is a popular tourist destination. The summer time in particular, is a popular time for visitors to Ulcinj. Although still undiscovered by many travelers from larger countries, repeat tourists and an increasing amount of first time visitors make Ulcinj a hot spot for vacationers between the months of May and September. It is most famous for its beaches, which are considered the most beautiful in Montenegro. The most valuable resource of the Ulcinj riviera is Velika Plaza (“Big Beach”), which is a 12 km long portion of sandy beach – the longest on the Montenegrin coast. At night during the summer months, young tourists walk past one another while bright lights decorate the street and live music invades their ear drums.Ulcinj’s old town is a very well preserved castle-looking community that is left over from medieval times. The old town sits atop a mountain overlooking the shore and is a tourist attraction on its own.